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MAPS Bulletin Summer 2014: Research Edition
Research > Psychedelic Research Around the World

MDMA ImageSee below for information about psychedelic research around the world not sponsored by MAPS.

The studies listed here are limited to those in which psychedelics are administered to human subjects. Studies that compare psychedelic drug users to non-drug users are generally not included, nor are animal studies. Inclusion on this page does not indicate that a project is supported by or affiliated with MAPS.

See our World Wide Web Psychedelic Bibliography for a comprehensive archive of past psychedelic research, including all clinical therapeutic studies as well as other human and animal studies.

If you would like more information about these studies or to alert us to studies not included here, please contact MAPS Research and Information Specialist Ilsa Jerome, Ph.D..

MDMA Research

contract MDMA Studies: In Progress
MDMA and the Noradrenergic System
Investigators: Matthias Liechti MD, Cedric Hysek PhD
Funding: Swiss National Science Foundation, University of Basel.
A series of studies investigating the role of the noradrenergic (norepinephrine) system plays in producing the physiological, neuroendocrine and subjective effects of MDMA, including an examination of the effects of noradrenergic drugs on the effects of MDMA on emotion perception. The studies have also considered potential use of specific noradrenergic drugs as means of ameliorating cardiovascular and thermoregulatory effects of MDMA in humans.

The Positive Effects of MDMA
Sponsor: Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research
Investigators: Johannes G Ramaekers PhD, Kim PC Kuypers PhD
Contact: .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address)
This program of research is examining the psychopharmacology and genetic contributions to the positive effects of MDMA in healthy volunteers and includes examinations of the role played by specific human gene variants and the neuropeptide oxytocin on the positive effects of MDMA.

Physiological Correlates of PTSD Before and After MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy
Investigators: Dominique Holstein MS
Location: University Psychiatric Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland
Sponsor: HMF Zurich, HRC Zurich
Contact: Christian Schopper, MD, Franz Vollenweider, MD
This study is taking place in conjunction with a randomized, double-blind comparison of low versus experimental doses of MDMA in 12 people with treatment-resisted PTSD, with eight people receiving 125 mg followed by 62.5 mg MDMA, and four people receiving 25 mg followed by 12.5 mg MDMA being conducted by Peter Oehen MD. Dr. Oehen's study offers a unique opportunity to investigate further possible links between changes in physiological measures associated with the symptomatology of PTSD and improvement in patients undergoing treatment and symptom relief. People with PTSD may have deficits in information processing such as failures in sensory gating or filtering out information. Such measures of inhibition failure include prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle reflex and P50 auditory evoked potential suppression. Measures of impaired cognitive performance include various types of evoked response potential (EEG-ERP). Psychophysiological measures include skin conductance and heart rate variability. Differences in these measures are associated with having PTSD, but they have never been measured in the same individuals as part of a single investigation before. Thus the aim of the present longitudinal study is 1) to characterize PTSD patients using a broad range of physiological candidate measures (PPI, P50, SC, HRV) and cognitive paradigms (P200, P300), and second, to investigate how these measures relate to the symptomatology of PTSD and clinical outcome.
All PTSD patients that participate in Dr. Oehens study of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy will be assessed at baseline, before undergoing MDMA-assisted psychotherapy, and three weeks after the third MDMA-assisted session. On the long run, the assessment of multiple physiological measures in PTSD patients shall further our understanding of the pathophysiology of this illness and increases the possibility to identify subgroups of PTSD patients, and help to identify more specific treatments.

contract MDMA Studies: Completed
Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics of Two Doses of MDMA
Investigators: Marilyn Huestis PhD, Melanie Mueller PhD, Erin Kolbrich-Spargo BS/PhD [E. Kolbrich]
This project includes randomized, blinded within-subjects comparisons of the metabolism, subjective and physiological effects of 1 and 1.6 mg/kg MDMA with inactive placebo in healthy volunteers. Blood and urine sample are used to gain information about MDMA pharmacokinetics. Comparison between human and primate metabolism of MDMA are also examined.

Acute and Subacute Effects of MDMA and Methamphetamine in Healthy Volunteers
Sponsor: National Institute on Drug Abuse
Investigators: Carl Hart PhD, Matthew Kirkpatrick PhD, and colleagues
This project consists of randomized, blinded studies comparing the subjective and physiological effects of MDMA and methamphetamine over multiple days and including task performance, verified food consumption and sleep in healthy volunteers reporting some experience with ecstasy and stimulants.

Acute Effects of MDMA on Impulsivity, Memory, and Actual Car Driving
Sponsors: European Commission; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research
Investigators: Johannes G. Ramaekers PhD; Kim P.C. Kuypers PhD
Randomized, double-blind within-subjects studies compared MDMA with placebo, methylphenidate (Ritalin) or ethanol in performance tests of impulsivity, visual and verbal memory, skills related to driving a car and actual driving acutely and 24 hours after drug administration.

Effects of MDMA Alone and Combined with THC or Ethanol
Sponsor: The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development
Investigators: Glenn Dumont PhD, RJ Verkes PhD
Contact: Glenn Dumont (.(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address))
Studies examined the physiological, subjective, acute cognitive and neuroendocrine effects of MDMA given alone and in combination with the THC (the active compound in cannabis) or ethanol in healthy volunteers reporting some experience with "ecstasy." This project included the first report of elevated serum oxytocin after MDMA in a randomized, placebo controlled study.

Is Ecstasy An Empathogen? Determinants of Drug Preference in Humans
Investigators: Harriet de Wit PhD, Gillinder Bedi D.Psych, David Hyman
Funding: National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Social neuroscience studies examined how MDMA affected identification of and response to facial emotional expressions, including imaging brain activity after viewing different emotions.

MDMA Dose Response Study in Cancer Patients with Anxiety
Investigator: John Halpern MD, Harvard Medical School and McLean Hospital, Belmont MA
Sponsor: Peter Lewis
Study of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in subjects with anxiety as a result of advanced stage cancer, with outcome measures to evaluate anxiety, pain and quality of life. On February 23, 2004, MAPS donated $11,000 to McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, for Dr. Halpern's work on the protocol design and approval process ($15,000 was also donated to McLean for this study on June 2003). MAPS had initially worked with Dr. Charles Grob in a much earlier effort to conduct MDMA research in cancer patients prior to Dr. Grob's switching to psilocybin (see entry below). For more information about Dr. Grob's effort. see the details and reference page, the 1995 version of the protocol, and view the video. As of January, 2005, Dr. Halpern's study has now been approved by the McLean Hospital and Lahey Clinic IRBs, and the FDA has given permission (approved) the study as well. On March 7, 2006, the DEA has approved this study. MAPS has since withdrawn financial support for this study. A single participant completed the study and a second had one experimental session and then dropped out before the second session because of a desire to resume treatment for his illness. A case report is being written and will be complete by summer 2012.

Serotonin and Dopamine System Interactions in the Reinforcing Properties of Psychostimulants
Investigators: Manny Tancer, MD and Charles Schuster, PhD
Wayne State University - Detroit, Michigan, USA
Sponsor: NIDA
Psychobiological studies approved and in process. An MDMA dose-response study and a comparison of MDMA, d-amphetamine and mCPP are completed. The first paper about this research was published in December, 2001, and a second report was published in November 2003.

Behavioral Effects of MDMA Related to Driving Ability
Investigators: C.T.J. Lamers PhD, J.G. Ramaekers PhD, W.J. Riedel
University of Maastricht, the Netherlands
Sponsor: Ministry of Transport, the Netherlands
This research examines MDMA effects on driving related task performance, including psychomotor function (such as tracking, movement speed), cognitive function (attention, executive function and planning) and object movement prediction. In addition, mood changes and physiological measures were assessed, and MDMA levels were measured in blood, sweat, urine and saliva. Studies already published were conducted according to a placebo-controlled, cross-over, double-blind design and treatments included placebo, 75 mg MDMA and 0.5 g/kg alcohol.

Effects of MDMA
Investigators: Franz Vollenweider, MD, Alex Gamma, PhD
Psychiatric University Hospital - Zrich, Switzerland
Sponsors: Swiss National Science Foundation, UBS Science Foundation
Psychobiologic studies including: assessment of possible neurophysiological, psychological and cognitive alterations in chronic MDMA users; evaluation of the role of serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine systems in mediating the effect of MDMA on mood, psychomotor behavior and sensorimotor gating in humans, investigating whether regular MDMA users show alterations in 5-HT reuptake site densities indicative of neurotoxic effects after long-term MDMA use. MAPS donated $6,000 to a sub-study in which 10 MDMA-naive subjects will receive a PET scan to measure serotonin reuptake sites before and after a single dose of MDMA (1.5-1.7mg/kg)

For details see the MDMA Research in Switzerland Page

Gender Differences in the Subjective Effects of MDMA
Investigators: Liechti ME, Gamma A, Vollenweider, FX
Sponsors/Funding: Swiss National Science Foundation; Swiss Federal Health Office; Heffter Research Institute
References: Psychopharmacology DOI (2001) 10.1007/s002130000648

Effects of MDMA (Ecstasy) on Prepulse Inhibition and Habituation
Investigators: Liechti ME, Geyer MA, Hell D, Vollenweider FX
Sonsors/Funding: Swiss National Science Foundation; Swiss Federal Health Office; Heffter Research Institute
References: Neuropsychopharmacology (2001) 24:240-252

MDMA Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics in Humans
Investigators: John Mendelson, MD and Reese Jones, MD
UC San Francisco - California, USA
Contact person: Matt Baggott, PhD
Sponsor: NIDA
Drug administration phase completed, eight subjects were given 0.5 and 1.5 mg/kg MDMA HCl. A paper from it is in press at Annals of Internal Medicine. Data was presented at two conferences.

See also Research in Germany.
See the MDMA Research Page for more links.

Clinical Pharmacology of the Interaction between Alcohol and MDMA
Investigators: Jordi Cam, MD, Magi Farr, MD, et al.
Institut Municipal d'Investigacio Medica - Barcelona, Spain
Sponsor: Funded in part by several government grants
Psychobiologic study looking at the interaction of MDMA (100 mg) and alcohol (.8 g/kg).

Mood State and Brain Electric Activity in Ecstasy Users
Investigators: Alex Gamma, PhD, Edi Frei, Dietrich Lehmann (1), Roberto D. Pascual-Marqui (1), Daniel Hell and Franz Vollenweider, MD
Research Unit and (1) The KEY Institute for Brain-Mind Research, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Zurich
Sponsors/Funding: Swiss National Science Foundation; Swiss Federal Health Office; Heffter; MAPS.
Contact: Alex Gamma, PhD
References: Neuroreport (2000) 11 (1): 157-162.

Pharmacological Effects of MDMA in Humans
Investigator: Jordi Cam, MD, Magi Farr, MD, et al.
Institut Municipal d'Investigacio Medica - Barcelona, Spain
Contact: Jordi Camí, MD or Magi Farré, MD
Sponsor: Funded in part by several government grants
Studies include: Quantification of MDMA and its metabolites in plasma and urine by gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection; Human pharmacology of MDMA, Psychomotor performance and subjective effects.

Low-dose MDMA
Investigator: John Henry, MD
University College London, England
This was a neurotoxicity study. Henry is directing additional MDMA studies at this time.
  • Fallon JK, Kicman AT, Henry JA, Milligan PJ, Cowan DA, Hutt AJ.
    Stereospecific analysis and enantiomeric disposition of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy) in humans.
    Clin Chem 1999 Jul;45(7):1058-69.
  • Henry JA, Fallon JK, Kicman AT, Hutt AJ, Cowan DA, Forsling M
    Low-dose MDMA ("ecstasy") induces vasopressin secretion.
    Lancet 1998 Jun 13;351(9118):1784.

Psycholytic Therapy with MDMA and LSD in Switzerland
Investigators: Marianne Bloch, MD, Jurai Styk, MD and Dr. Samuel Widmer, MD
Sponsor: Swiss Medical Society for Psycholytic Therapy
From 1988 to 1993 therapists with the Swiss Medical Society for Psycholytic Therapy worked with MDMA and LSD as adjuncts to psychotherapy. The findings from this study were published in the MAPS Bulletin, Winter 1994-95 issue.
Drs. Juraj and Sonja Styk discussed this work at the 1999 MAPS MDMA symposium in Israel.
Read their talk, and view a video

Acute effects of 3, 4 - methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)
Investigators: Alex Gamma, PhD, Franz Vollenweider, MD
Psychiatric University Hospital - Zrich, Switzerland
Sponsor: UBS Science Foundation and others
Contact: or
Aim: an integrative characterization of MDMA in terms of its acute neurophysiological, psychological and cognitive effects in healthy, MDMA-naive human subjects. Subjects were given a single oral dose of MDMA (1.7 mg/kg).
Also see the references and details page.

MDMA Neurotoxicity Study
Investigators: Una McCann, MD, George Ricaurte, MD, PhD
Johns Hopkins University - Baltimore, Maryland
PET scan study, MDMA Neurotoxicity, MDMA Users vs. Control Group.

MDE Research

contract MDE Studies: Completed
The Psychological, Neuroendocrine, Cardiovascular and Sleep-EEG Effects of MDE
Investigators: Euphrosyne Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, MD et al.
Aachen, Germany
Contact: Sponsor: DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft = German Research Foundation)
Human research on neurobiological and subjective effects of MDE. References and details.

Differential Cognitive and Brain Activation Effects of the Isomers of MDE
Investigators: Dr. Spitzer, et al.
University of Ulm, Germany
This study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the cognitive and brain activation effects of the isomers of MDE. The researchers concluded "The so-called entactogenic effects of MDE are likely to be caused by the (S)-enantiomer, whereas (R)-MDE appears to be responsible for neurotoxic effect."

Psychobiologic Effects of MDMA in Humans
Investigators: Charles S. Grob, MD, and Russell E. Poland, PhD
Harbor-UCLA Medical Center - Torrance, California, USA
Sponsor: MAPS, Harbor/UCLA
Contact: ,
FDA-approved Phase 1 dose-response safety study .25 to 2.25 mg/kg, dose administration phase completed, data for .25 to .75 mg/kg published. Data for 1.00 to 2.25 mg/kg being analysed for publication.
Also see the details and references page, and view the video.

MDMA and Memory
Investigators: Karen Bolla, PhD et al.
Johns Hopkins University - Baltimore, Maryland
Sponsor: NIH
Neuropsychological memory testing of MDMA users and controls.

Also see Alex Gamma - MDMA and Memory

  • Bolla KI, McCann UD, Ricaurte GA (1998) Memory impairment in abstinent MDMA ("Ecstasy") users. Neurology Dec 1998;51(6):1532-7.

  • U D McCann, Z Szabo, U Scheffel, R F Dannals, G A Ricaurte (1998) Positron emission tomographic evidence of toxic effect of MDMA ("Ecstasy") on brain serotonin neurons in human beings. The Lancet Oct 1998; 352(9138): 1433-37.

Ayahuasca Research

contract Ayahuasca Studies: In Progress
Effects of ayahuasca on brain activity
Sponsors: Brazilian federal agences (CNPq, CAPES; FINEP; The Sao Paulo State financial agency (FAPESP). Investigators: Draulio de Araujo, Jose Alexandre Crippa, Jaime Hallak and Sidarta Ribeiro Summary: This project examined the effects of ayahuasca on visual perception and imagery using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The first publication reports that the researchers found that ayahuasca strongly increased activity several occipital, temporal, and frontal areas. There are plans to publish more research findings.

contract Ayahuasca Studies: Under Development
Assessing the role of the Serotonin-2A receptor in Ayahuasca Effects in Humans
Principal Investigator: Jordi Riba
Institute de Recerca, Hospital de Sant Pau - Barcelona, Spain
Sponsor: Institut de Reserca, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau (HSCSP).
Objective: Ayahuasca is a complex alkaloid combination with various pharmacological mechanisms. Our study will assess the involvement of the 5HT2A receptor in its subjective, physiological, endocrine and immunological effects. A pharmacological blockade trial will be conducted in healthy volunteers. Findings will shed light on whether ayahuasca is merely "oral DMT" or whether other effects, such as increased endogenous (“naturally occurring”) neurotransmitter levels, also contribute to the overall ayahuasca experience.
Funding: study costs have been calculated at 65,000 dollars; 20,000 have already been secured. Interested donors please contact: Jordi Riba, Ph.D (.(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address))

Long Term Outcomes Of Substance Abuse Treatment At Takiwasi Center
Investigators: Anne Denys, Rosa Giove, Fernando Mendive.
Takiwasi Center - Tarapoto, Peru
Contact: Investigacion At Takiwasi.com
Sponsor: not yet funded
For fifteen years, Takiwasi Center has offered an innovative substance abuse treatment. It is based on a therapeutic model that harmoniously integrates selected interventions from modern psychology and medicine, with key concepts and healing techniques from traditional Amazonian medicine. In this model, Ayahuasca plays a central role in the therapeutic process. The present study will evaluate the outcomes on ex-patients discharged from Takiwasi Center for more than five years prior to assessment and meeting the highest standards in the field of addiction research.
  • Giove R. (2002) Medicina Tradicional Amaznica en el tratamiento de las toxicomanias. La Liana de los muertos al rescate de la vida. 7 aos de experiencia del centro Takiwasi. Comision Nacional para el Desarrollo y Vida sin Drogas, DEVIDA, Takiwasi, Centro de Rehabilitacin de Toxicmanos y de Investigacin de las Medicinas Tradicionales [Book published by Takiwasi Center].

contract Ayahuasca Studies: Completed
Pharmacological Study of Ayahuasca in Healthy Humans
Investigators: Manel Barbanoj, MD, PhD and Jordi Riba Institute de Recerca, Hospital de Sant Pau - Barcelona, Spain Sponsor: Institut de Reserca, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau (HSCSP), partial funding from Spanish government.
Contact: Jordi Riba, Ph.D
A repeated dose study and a neurochemical mechanism study designed to evaluate the capacity of 5HT1A agonists and 5HT2A antagonists to block the effects of ayahuasca will both be conducted soon. These studies are also included as part of the program of research including a SPECT study of regional blood flow after ayahuasca that is already in progress, as described above. The investigators are seeking funding to support this study.

Study of neurofunctional changes after ayahuasca intake
Investigator(s): J. P. Pinto MA, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto Jaime Eduardo Cecilio Hallak MD, PhD; Jose Alexandre de Souza Crippa MD, PhD; Draulio Barros de Araújo PhD; Thiago Ferrari Borduqui MSc; Lauro Wicher-Ana MD, PhD; Tiago Arruda Sanchez PhD; Fabiana Mesquita de Carvalho MSc and Sidarta Tollendal Gomes Ribeiro PhD.
Sponsor: None, access to imaging machines allowed by clinic at University of São
Contact: .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address)
This research examined brain activity after administration of ayahuasca. The first study examined brain activity using single-proton emission computed tomography (SPECT) after 200 mL ayahuasca in ten individuals with no prior experience with the material, and a second study examined brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in ten individuals with prior religious/spiritual use of ayahuasca. SPECT imaging found activation of the frontal and temporal cortex and limbic areas, and reduced CBF in part of the right cerebellar region. fMRI detected decreased activation of language processing areas, and reduced physiological hemisphere lateralization during the word-generating task.

Exploring Personality, Phenomenological, and EEG Correlates of the Ayahuasca Journey Experience
Investigators: Frank G. Echenhofer Ph.D., Katee Wynia MA, Jay Gunkelman QEEGD, Luis Eduardo Luna Ph.D., Wayne G. Whitehouse Ph.D, California Institute of Integral Studies, San Francisco CA.
Sponsor: Currently self-funded; MAPS providing publicity and serving as conduit for tax-deductable donations.
The purpose of this proposed research is to further study the patterning and dynamics of enhanced EEG gamma coherence during ayahuasca to develop biofeedback protocols, which, in turn, might be used to enable individuals to voluntarily access states of heightened awareness without using an entheogen. Previous EEG recordings from two individuals very familiar with the sacred use of ayahuasca detected high gamma EEG. The current research is designed to replicate and extend these earlier findings, and will be conducted in twelve research participants familiar with the sacred use of ayahuasca who will take part in an ayahuasca seminar occurring in southern Brazil from January 7-18, 2005 designed to facilitate spiritual development.

Potential research participants and donors can view the research proposal for this study. Individuals interested in making tax-deductible donations to "Exploring Personality, Phenonenological, and EEG Correlates of the Ayahuasca Journey Experience to Facilitate Spiritual Development: To support this research project contact MAPS, an IRS approved 501(c)(3) non-profit corporation, and MAPS will allocate 100% of the donations ear-marked for this project as well as providing donors with needed documentation for tax purposes. It is important that you indicate to MAPS that your donation is for the Echenhofer Ayahuasca EEG Project.

Ayahuasca in the Treatment of Substance Abuse
Investigators: Jacques Mabit, Jaime Torres, Rosa Giove, Javier Zavala, Olga Celis
Takiwasi Center - Tarapoto, Peru
Website: www.takiwasi.com
Sponsors: Self-financed, funding sought from the French government, European Union, and United Nations
Takiwasi has been doing research with substance abuse treatment for several years.

  • Mabit J, Sieber C (2006) The Evolution of a Pilot Drug Treatment Program Using Ayahuasca. Shamans Drum Journal 73: 23-31
  • Mabit, J (2007) Ayahuasca in the treatment of addiction. Chapter 6; In Hallucinogens and Health : New Evidence for Psychedelic Substances as Treatment (Vol 2) Ed. MJ. Winkelman & TB. Roberts; Greenwood Publishing Group; pp 87-105.
  • "Itinerary and Testimony of Dr. Jacques Mabit, physician and shaman, a conversation with Frederique Appfel-Marglin, in INTERculture, Journal of the Intercultural Institute of Montreal, Issue No. 152, Identity and Religious Pluralism, Montral, Canada, April 2007.
  • "Blending Traditions - Using Indigenous Medicinal Knowledge to Treat Drug Addiction" - Jacques Mabit, M.D., MAPS Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 2, Summer 2002. [PDF version]
  • "Ayahuasca and Shamanism in Addiction Therapy" - Michel Mabit, MAPS Bulletin, Vol. 6 No. 3, Summer 1996
  • "The Takiwasi Patient's Journey" - Michel Mabit, MAPS Bulletin, Vol. 6 No. 3., Summer 1996

A Study of Uniao do Vegetal (UDV) Adolescents
Investigators: Charles Grob, MD, Ailonso Luiza, Claudia Miranda,
Glacus de Souza Brito, MD and Marlene de Rios
Sao Paulo, Brazil
Sponsor: Heffter
Testing and evaluation of adolescents who have used ayahuasca and matched controls have been completed. Data review now in process.
  • Dobkin de Rios, M.. and Grob, CS (2005) Ayahuasca use in cross-cultural perspective: an introduction. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 37:119-121.
  • Doering-Silveira, E, Grob, CS, Dobkin de Rios, M, Lopez, E, Alonso, LB, Tacla, C, Brito, GS, Castello, O. and Da Silveira, DX (2005) Ayahuasca in adolescence: a neuropsychological assessment. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 37:123-128.
  • Doering-Silveira, E, Grob, CS, Dobkin de Rios, M, Lopez, E, Alonso, LB, Tacla, C, Brito, GS, Castello, O. and Da Silveira, DX (2005) Ayahuasca in adolescence: a preliminary psychiatric assessment. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 37:129-133.
  • Doering-Silveira, E, Grob, CS, Dobkin de Rios, M, Lopez, E, Alonso, LB, Tacla, C, Brito, GS, Castello, O, and Da Silveira, DX (2005) Report on psychoactive drug use among adolescents using ayahuasca within a religious context. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 37:135-139.
  • Dobkin de Rios, M, Grob, CS, Loopez, E, Da Silveira, DX, Alonso, L. and Doering-Silveira, E. (2005) Ayahuasca in adolescence: qualitative results. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 37:141-144.

Effects of ayahuasca on psychometric measures of anxiety, panic-like and hopelessness in Santo Daime
Investigator: Rafael G. dos Santos
Departamento de Processos Psicologicos Basicos, Instituto de Psicologia, Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia-DF, Brazil
Current address: Institute de Recerca, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain
Sponsor: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq)

The use of the hallucinogenic brew ayahuasca, obtained from infusing the shredded stalk of the malpighiaceous plant Banisteriopsis caapi with the leaves of other plants such as Psychotria viridis, is growing in urban centers of Europe, South and North America in the last several decades. Despite this diffusion, little is known about its effects on emotional states. The present study investigated the effects of ayahuasca on psychometric measures of anxiety, panic-like and hopelessness in members of the Santo Daime, an ayahuasca-using religion. Standard questionnaires were used to evaluate state-anxiety (STAI-state), trait-anxiety (STAI-trait), panic-like (ASI-R) and hopelessness (BHS) in participants that ingested ayahuasca for at least 10 consecutive years. The study was done in the Santo Daime church, where the questionnaires were administered 1 h after the ingestion of the brew, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled procedure. While under the acute effects of ayahuasca, participants scored lower on the scales for panic and hopelessness related states. Ayahuasca ingestion did not modify state or trait anxiety. The results are discussed in terms of the possible use of ayahuasca in alleviating signs of hopelessness and panic-like related symptoms.

The therapeutic potential of substance abuse treatment with Ayahuasca-a qualitative study
Investigator: Dipl. Psych Anya Loizaga-Velder, University of Heidelberg, Germany
Contact: Anya Loizaga Velder
This qualitative study will involve interviewing 10 health professionals who work with ayahuasca as an adjunct for substance abuse treatment in order to gain a deeper understanding about the therapeutic process of ayahuasca-assisted therapy for addiction, as well as identifying major differences in conceptualization and practice of the addiction treatments. Loizaga-Velder will also interview five health professionals who are working or have worked with other psychedelics as adjuncts to treatment of addiction. A follow up study of 10 subjects who have participated in ayahuasca intervention for addiction will also be conducted. The research seeks to examine how ayahuasca is used in different contexts of addiction treatment and the institutional, psychological and social conditions that provide for a successful treatment outcome for ayahuasca-assisted therapy for addiction. This research is part of the Ritual Dynamics and Salutogenesis project ( RISA); www.risa.uni-hd.de.

MMPI-2 Study of N.A. Ayahuasca Drinkers
Here are the docs for this study figures and document

Pharmacological, imaging and immunological studies of Ayahuasca in Healthy Volunteers
Investigators: Manel Barbanoj, MD, PhD and Jordi Riba
Institute de Recerca, Hospital de Sant Pau - Barcelona, Spain
Sponsor: Institut de Reserca, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau (HSCSP)
A study of the urinary excretion of ayahuasca alkaloids in the 22-volunteer, double-blind study (described below) is planned but has not yet been conducted due to lack of funding. The double-blind brain-imaging study using SPECT to study regional cerebral blood flow after ayahuasca administration has been fully approved and is now in progress. As of this date, seventeen volunteers have undergone all experimental sessions. This study will also look for any immunomodulating effects of ayahuasca. These studies are seeking additional information on mechanisms of action underlying the central effects of ayahuasca.
Read the update in the MAPS Bulletin, Summer 2000 issue.

Pharmacological Study of Ayahuasca in Healthy Volunteers
Investigators: Manel Barbanoj, MD, PhD and Jordi Riba
Institute de Recerca, Hospital de Sant Pau - Barcelona, Spain
Sponsor: Institut de Reserca, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau (HSCSP)
The initial pilot study has been completed, including a published report of subjective effects in 6 volunteers. An 18-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of ayahuasca effects is now complete. Included were measures of subjective effects, cardiovascular effects, sensorimotor gating, EEG variables, urinary monoamine metabolite excretion, and pharmacokinetics of ayahuasca alkaloids.

EEG of Long-Term Ayahuasca Drinkers vs. Matched Controls
Investigators: Dr. Micheal Hessellink (Holland), Yatra da Silveira Barbosa (Brazil), Dr. Erik Hofmann (Denmark). Co-investigators are: Dr. Glacos Brito and Dr. Dartiu Xavier da Silveira both from Brazil.
Sao Paulo, Brazil
The protocol has been completed and an article reporting on the results is published in the MAPS Bulletin, Spring 2001.

Investigations on the Human Psychopharmacology of Ayahuasca: Phase I
Investigators: Dennis J. McKenna, PhD and Charles S. Grob, MD and Jace Callaway, PhD
Contact: and
Sponsor: Botanical Dimensions, Heffter, MAPS
Psychobiologic study, completed and published, follow-up studies possible.

DMT Research

contract DMT Studies: Completed
Human Psychopharmacology of N,N-dimethyltryptamine
Investigator: Rick Strassman, MD
University of New Mexico, USA
Sponsor: NIDA
Psychobiological study, finished and published.

MAPS Bulletin - Volume 6 Number 1 Autumn 1995
University of New Mexico Update

Ibogaine Research

contract Ibogaine Studies: Completed
Ibogaine treatment study with addiction
Investigator: Deborah Mash, PhD
St. Kitt, Virgin Islands
Sponsor: Healing Visions Institute for Addiction Recovery, Ltd.
Sponsor: Healing Visions Institute for Addiction Recovery, Ltd. Clinical study of the safety and efficacy of ibogaine in the treatment of addiction, with data gathered from patients treated by Dr. Mash, an expert in the study of ibogaine in human patient volunteers. To date, she has evaluated the effect of ibogaine in over three hundred patients. Due to a lack of funds, most of these data come from treatment conducted off-shore. This study is now completed, and Dr. Mash submitted data to FDA in 2007.
  • Mash, D.C., Kovera, C.A. Pablo, J., Tyndale, R. F., Ervin, F.D., Williams, I.C., Singleton, E.G., and Mayor, M.
    Ibogaine: Complex Pharmacokinetics, Concerns for Safety, and Preliminary Efficacy. Neurobiological Mechansisms of Drugs of Abuse, Annals New York Acad. Sci. Vol. 94: 394-401, 2000.
  • Mash DC, Kovera CA, Buck BE, Norenberg MD, Shapshak P, Hearn WL, Sanchez-Ramos J, (1998)
    Medication Development of Ibogaine as a Pharmacotherapy for Drug Dependence, Annals NY Acad Sci, v 844 pp 274-292.

Safety studies in preparation for proposed study of ibogaine therapy in the treatment of cocaine add
Investigators: Juan Sanchez-Ramos, MD, PhD and Deborah Mash, PhD
Unversity of Miami Medical School - Florida, USA
Sponsor: University of Miami, MAPS
Clinical study Phase I begun (up to 2 mg/kg), funding ceased, published. view video

Ketamine Research

contract Ketamine Studies: Completed
Meditation with Salvia Divinorum/Salvinorin A
Meditation with Salvia Divinorum/Salvinorin A (link to page)

SalviaMeditation with Salvia Divinorum/Salvinorin A

Investigators: Ian Soutar, Rick Strassman, M.D.
E-mail: .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address)
Sponsor: MAPS

Experiments in Altered Perception of 3-D Visual Illusions as a Screening Method for Psychedelic
Investigators: Torsten Passie, MD; Udo Schneider MD and Hinderk Emrich, MD
Hannover, Germany
Sponsor: MAPS, Dept. of Psychiatry Hannover Medical School
Clinical experiment with ketamine to establish a paradigm to use visual 3-D illusions as screening instruments for detecting psychedelic activity in humans below the subjective threshold of experience. Passie's team has recently published a report relating to this research. A second report on data from this MAPS-supported study will soon appear in the journal "Neuropsychobiology" in early 2005.

Ketamine Psychedelic Therapy in the Treatment of Heroin Addiction
Investigator: Evgeny Krupitsky, MD, PhD
St. Petersburg, Russia
Sponsor: MAPS, Heffter
Clinical study, drug administration phase completed, 70 patients treated (35 in the experimental and 35 in the control group). The study is finished, the researchers published the six-month follow-up paper in MAPS. The one-year follow-up analysis has been completed. Two year follow-up data has been analyzed and submitted for publication and is currently in the midst of the peer review process. Results are promising.
Research Protocol for the Therapeutic dose vs. Low Dose Placebo study

Psychedelic Effects of Ketamine in Healthy Volunteers
Investigators: Bowdle TA, Radant AD, Cowley DS, Kharasch ED, Strassman RJ, Roy- Byrne PP
Department of Psychiatry, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington, Seattle
Ketamine or saline was administered in a single-blinded crossover protocol to 10 psychiatrically healthy volunteers. Hallucinogen rating scale scores were similar to those found in a previous study with psychedelic doses of DMT. Synopsis of paper in Anesthesiology (1998)

Ketamine Psychedelic Therapy in the Treatment of Alcoholics
Investigator: Evgeny Krupitsky, MD, PhD
St. Petersburg, Russia
Sponsor: Leningrad Regional Center for Alcoholism and Drug Addiction Therapy, MAPS
Ten years of clinical studies completed and published.

Ketamine Research in Russia Page (MAPS)

LSA Research

contract LSA Studies: In Progress
Case Series: Response of Cluster Headache to Self-Administered Lysergic-Acid-Amide-Containing Seeds
Investigator: R. Andrew Sewell MD

Sponsor: MAPS
Inspired by reports from the cluster headache community that ingestion of seeds containing LSA (Hawaiian baby woodrose, morning glory, Rivea corymbosa) terminates cluster periods in the same way that LSD and psilocybin do, this study will examine the effects of LSA on cluster headache by collecting accounts from patients who have used these seeds to control their symptoms, and will also analyze the seeds that they used in order to determine the LSA content.

LSD Research

contract LSD Studies: In Progress
LSD-assisted psychotherapy for 12 people with anxiety related to life-threatening illness
Investigator: Peter Gasser MD
Sponsor: MAPS
Contact: Peter Gasser, MD
This research will study the safety and efficacy of LSD-assisted psychotherapy in reducing anxiety arising from diagnosis with a serious illness and limited life expectancy, to be conducted in 12 subjects in Switzerland by Dr. Peter Gasser. The protocol was reviewed and approved by the ethics board and was reviewed and cleared by Swissmedic, the Swiss Food and Drug Agency, and has been reviewed and cleared by BAG, the agency akin to the US Drug Enforcement Administration. Dr. Gasser sent in his first annual report on November 25, 2008 and has enrolled four subjects.

Swiss LSD/End-of-Life Anxiety Study Annual Report Completed
Swiss LSD/End-of-Life Anxiety Study Annual Report Completed:
On November 25, 2008, Dr. Peter Gasser, the Principal Investigator (PI) for the MAPS-sponsored LSD/end-of-life anxiety study, issued the first Annual Report discussing the progress we’ve made in this last year. We’re making gradual progress in what will become the first study of the therapeutic use of LSD in almost 40 years.

contract LSD Studies: Under Development
Psilocybin and LSD in the treatment and prevention of cluster headaches
Investigators: Dr. John Halpern
Location: Harvard Medical School, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA.
Sponsor: ClusterBusters
MAPS was approached in early 2004 by Bob Wold, a cluster headache patient advocate (http://www.clusterbusters.com), who has collected more than 50 case reports of people reporting very positive results in breaking cluster headache cycles and delaying the reoccurrance of cluster headaches through using psilocybin or LSD. At present, there are some medications that are used to stop cluster headaches, which are more severe than migraines, but they are not fully effective in many patients, and they do not prevent the cycling course of cluster headaches.

Marsha and David Weil have donated $50,000 for this research effort and Joseph Leonard has donated $2,000. An estimated $250,000 in addition is being sought to support this clinical trial. Potential donors can contact at Clusterbusters for more information. The effort to design and obtain approval for a study will be led by Dr. John Halpern at Harvard Medical School. Protocol development is still underway. Dr. Sewell and Halpern have completed and published a case series of people with cluster headaches who used psilocybin or LSD to treat their condition.

contract LSD Studies: Completed
Receptor Profiles of Lysergamides related to LSD
Investigator: David E. Nichols, PhD
Purdue University - West Lafayette, IN
Sponsor: Heffter, Promind
Laboratory research, no human or animal subjects. It is well known that the nature of the amide function of lysergamides is critical to conferring activity and high potency onto these molecules. The N,N-diethylamide (LSD) is unique among all the known amides, both for the qualitative aspects of its effects and for its extremely high potency.This project is evaluating a series of lysergamides of varying amide structure using radioligand competition studies at cloned human brain neurotransmitter receptors expressed in cell lines. The project seeks to identify in these data the possible reasons for the high degree of variability in activity of the various amides. That is, is there a specific subset of receptors to which LSD binds that less potent lysergamides do not? In addition, intracellular signaling pathways are being examined to determine whether all lysergamides activate the same intracellular biochemical events.

Follow-up study of Bastiaans LSD therapy
Investigators: Nicole Maalste, Hans Ossebaard
Utrecht, Netherlands
Sponsor: MAPS, Promind Foundation
Retrospective survey study with former clients who were treated with drug therapy by Dr. Jan Bastiaans. Data collection and analysis for pilot study completed. Funding sought for further research.

Psycholytic Therapy with MDMA and LSD in Switzerland
Zurich, Switzerland
Investigators: Marianne Bloch, MD, Jurai Styk, MD and Dr. Samuel Widmer, MD
Sponsor: Swiss Medical Society for Psycholytic Therapy
From 1988 to 1993 therapists with the Swiss Medical Society for Psycholytic Therapy worked with MDMA and LSD as adjuncts to psychotherapy. The findings from this study were published in the MAPS Bulletin, Winter 1994- 95. Drs. Juraj and Sonja Styk discussed this work at the 1999 MAPS MDMA symposium in Israel. Read their talk, view video

A Critical Review of Theories and Research Concerning LSD
Investigator: David Abrahart
A critical research literature review concerning LSD and mental health. In particular it concentrates on flashbacks, precipitated psychoses and therapeutic uses. Read it

Follow-up Study of Janiger LSD Research
Investigators: Rick Doblin, Jerry Beck, PhD, Kate Obata, Maureen Alioto
Los Angeles Area, California
Sponsor: MAPS
Retrospective survey study with 45 people who participated in the LSD research of Dr. Oscar Janiger between 1954 and 1962. The Janiger LSD Follow-up Study was published by MAPS.

Mescaline Research

contract Mescaline Studies: Completed
Blood flow and cerebral laterality in the mescaline model of psychosis
Investigators: Hermle L, Gouzoulis-Mayfrank E, Spitzer M
Department of Psychiatry, Christophsbad, Goppingen, Germany.
Abstract of published paper

Peyote Research

contract Peyote Studies: Completed
Peyote Neuropsychological Study
Investigator: John Halpern, MD, Harrison Pope, MD
Harvard Medical School - Cambridge, Massachussetts
Sponsor: Heffter, NIDA, Harvard Medical School, MAPS
Investigators have begun neuropsychological testing with Native American Church members. The investigators did not find any signs of impaired cognition in NAC members. MAPS donated $10,000 towards this study in May, 2001.

Psilocybin Research

contract Psilocybin Studies: In Progress
Johns Hopkins Study of Psilocybin in Cancer Patients
Investigators: Roland Griffiths PhD, William Richards PhD, Matthew Johnson, Ph.D., Una McCann, M.D.
Sponsor: Heffter Research Institute, Riverstyx Foundation
Contact: Roland Griffiths, PhD
This study is being done to find out if psilocybin can produce personally and spiritually meaningful experiences in cancer patients, thereby extending findings from an earlier study in our laboratory with healthy volunteers. This could be important because spirituality has been associated with increased psychological coping and decreased depression in serious illness. The study will enroll about 44 people, who will receive careful preparation and 2 sessions in which they will receive psilocybin. Structured guidance will be provided during the session and afterward to facilitate integration of the experiences.

To learn more about this study, visit the study website: http://www.cancer-insight.org

New York University Psilocybin and Cancer Study

Investigators: Stephen Ross MD; Anthony Bossis PhD; Jeffrey Guss MD

Sponsor: Heffter Research Institute
Contact: Gabrielle Agin-Liebes or Tara Malone at (646) 641-2000
This is a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study that will assess the efficacy of psilocybin on psychosocial distress, with the specific primary outcome variable being anxiety associated with cancer. Secondary outcome measures will look at the effect of psilocybin on symptoms of pain perception, depression, existential/psychospiritual distress, attitudes toward disease progression, quality of life, and spiritual/mystical states of consciousness.

For more information about this study, go to http://www.nyucanceranxiety.org/

Using BOLD fMRI to measure the effects of psilocin on brain activity and connectivity
Investigators: Robin Carhart-Harris PhD, Richard Wise, Amanda Feilding, David Nutt PhD.
Sponsor: Beckley Foundation
Supporting sponsor: MAPS and Heffter Research Institute
Robin Carhart Harris
This study is part of the Beckley Foundation/Imperial College Psychedelic Research Programme. It aims to discover how psilocin works in the brain by measuring increases and decreases in activity in different regions of the brain induced by the drug. Using analyses of functional and effective connectivity it will reveal network relationships between different regions of the brain and will show whether activity in certain brain regions is exerting a causal or driving influence over activity in other brain regions. These analyses may be very important for understanding the mechanism of action of psilocin. Based on the rationale of psychotherapeutic work with LSD and psilocybin/psilocin in the 1950s and 60s we will also address the hypothesis that psilocin lowers repression and facilitates autobiographical recollection. If this hypothesis is supported it will: 1) indicate that psilocin can facilitate the recollection of autobiographical memories 2) offer a biological explanation for how this occurs and 3) indicate how psilocin might be useful as an adjunct to dynamic psychotherapy.

A Pilot Study of Psilocybin-Facilitated Addiction Treatment
Investigators. Roland Griffiths PhD, Matt Johnson PhD,
Sponsor: Beckley Foundation
. Contact: Roland Griffiths, PhD
This study focuses on overcoming nicotine addiction in cigarette smokers. Psilocybin will be administered under highly supportive conditions to individuals who suffer drug dependence that has been resistant to treatment by conventional means. Participants will undergo several preparation meetings with session guides before two, day-long psilocybin sessions with a week's gap between them. Participants will meet with session guides the day after each session and weekly for 3 weeks after the last psilocybin session. To maximise the benefits of this research, we will also be looking to test the proposal that hallucinogen-induced mystical experiences may boost the immune system and thereby have important implications for health and well-being, by measuring cytokine markers of immune function before the first and after the last psilocybin session.

Effects of Psilocybin on Healthy Volunteers
Investigators: Roland Griffiths PhD, William Richards PhD, Una McCann MD, Robert Jesse
Sponsor: NIDA, Council for Spiritual Practices, Heffter Research Institute
Contact: Roland Griffiths, PhD
A series of studies is planned to investigate the effects of psilocybin in healthy volunteers. The first was a double-blind study evaluating the psychological effects of 30 mg/70 kg psilocybin relative to methylphenidate, 40 mg/70 kg administered under comfortable, supportive conditions to 36 hallucinogen-naive adults reporting regular participation in religious or spiritual activities. After psilocybin, 61% of the volunteers met pre-established criteria, as measured on standardized scales, for a full mystical experience, and 31% reported significant fear sometime during their psilocybin session. Two months after sessions, 71% of the volunteers rated their psilocybin experience as among the five most "spiritually significant" experiences of their lifetimes. Seventy-nine percent of volunteers rated that it had increased their current sense of personal well being or life satisfaction. Community observer (family, friends, coworkers) ratings tended to confirm this. Fourteen month follow-up data is being analyzed.

Continuing support for this research program is uncertain and the investigators are attempting to network with individuals or foundations that could help provide support. Learn more about this research: http://www.bpru.org/jhscrp_letter.pdf

Psilocybin Effects on Attention, Perception and Cognition
Investigators: Franz Vollenweider MD, Olivia Carter PhD, Felix Hasler MD
Psychiatric University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland...
Contact: Franz Vollenweider, MD
Sponsor: Heffter
Dr. Vollenweider and colleagues continue to study the neural correlates of consciousness and the effects of psilocybin on visual perception, attention, working memory, and time perception. Other studies will use EEG or positron emission tomography (PET) imaging.. Several published reports describe research findings, and other reports are forthcoming, or studies are underway at present.

Experimental Studies on the Effects of Psilocybin on Binocular Depth Inversion, Binocular Rivalry, N
Investigators: Torsten Passie M.D., Jrgen Seifert M.D., Udo Schneider M.D., Hinderk M. Emrich M.D., Ph.D.
Medical School Hannover, Dept. of Clinical Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Hannover, Germany
Web: www.schamanismus-information.de
Sponsor: MAPS/Medical School Hannover, Dept. of Clinical Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
This is a randomized, double-blind, active placebo-controlled study of the effects of medium doses of psilocybin in 12 healthy physicians, examining the effects of psilocybin on different neuropsychological measures, perceptual changes, synaesthesias and some subjective effects. These measures include binocular rivalry (different, or conflicting, information presented to each eye) and the "hollow mask" paradigm, measures examining changes in central processing of visual perception. The study is fully approved. MAPS has donated $3,000 for the purchase of 250 milligrams of psilocybin, insurance, and other expenses. Six of twelve subjects have now been enrolled in this study. So far, subjects have not experienced any complications. The setting is designed so that subjects have some quiet times for self-exploration. It seems that they have had some healing passages in their experiences. The study was completed in 2010 and will be published soon.
Read more about this study

contract Psilocybin Studies: Completed
Psilocybin in the treatment of cancer patients
Psilocybin in the treatment of cancer patients
Investigator: Charles Grob, MD, UCLA-Harbor Medical Center - Torrance, CA
Web: www.canceranxietystudy.org
Sponsor: Heffter
Grob has prepared a study investigating whether anxiety in the dying can be significantly reduced by the appropriate administration of psilocybin. Any attendant reduction in pain will also be measured. This study has enrolled 12 participants and is now complete. The researchers have published their results..

Psilocybin in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Investigator: Francisco Moreno, MD
University of Arizona, Tucson, USA
Sponsor: Heffter/MAPS
This is the first FDA-approved study in more than 25 years to examine the use of psilocybin in a patient population. The principal investigators plan to study the use of psilocybin in 10 patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). They want to determine if they can replicate in a clinical study several published case reports of patients whose OCD symptoms were reduced after self- experimentation with psilocybin mushrooms. MAPS has paid $12,250 for the synthesis of one gram of psilocybin. Analytical data on this psilocybin has been submitted to FDA in March, 2001, with approval obtained from the FDA on May 9, 2001. DEA licenses received July 2, 2001. First patient was treated on November 27, 2001, and after enrolling nine subjects, the study is now complete. Dr. Moreno's research team is now looking at the data, and a publication will be forthcoming. Preliminary analyses have been performed, and the data has been presented at the Society of Biological Psychiatry, The American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, the New Clinical Drug Evaluation Unit, and the International Transpersonal Association (ITA) Annual Meetings. Current news on this study, Study Protocol, Informed Consent Form

Psilocybin: Basic Dose-Response Safety Studies
Investigator: Franz Vollenweider, MD
Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland
Sponsor: Heffter
Dr. Vollenweider's team have completed a series of basic research studies into the dose-response effects of psilocybin on physiological and psychological measures, cognition, sensorimotor gating, sequential behaviour, and brain activity in healthy human subjects. Fifty-six individuals were examined after a range of doses of psilocybin. A paper reporting the effects of placebo, very low, low, medium and high doses of psilocybin (45 -315 mcg/kg) in eight individuals has been published on-line in November 2003 and in print in March 2004. The researchers assessed subjective, physiological and neuroendocrine effects of psilocybin, including an assessment of attention and visual perception, and previous investigations have examined the contribution of serotonin and dopamine transmitter sytsems to producing the subjective effects of psilocybin.

The Concord Prison Experiment Experiment Follow-Up
Investigator: Rick Doblin, Ph.D.

This study, originally published in the Journal of Psychoactive Drugs [Oct-Dec 1998] is one in a series of long-term follow-ups to early psychedelic research that MAPS has sponsored. The original 1961-63 Harvard study lead by Dr. Timothy Leary investigated the utility of psilocybin in reducing rates of recidivism for prisoners.

The Good Friday Experiment Follow-Up
Investigator: Rick Doblin, Ph.D.
This study, originally published in the Journal of Transpersonal Psychology [1991 Vol 23(1)] is one in a series of long-term follow-ups to early psychedelic research that MAPS has sponsored. The original 1962 Harvard study lead by Walter Pahnke investigated the utility of psilocybin in triggering a mystical experience.

Psilocybin’s Effects on Cognition
Investigator: Manfred Spitzer, MD, PhD et al.
Psychiatrische Universitats Klinic, Heidelberg, Germany
Human clinical study, completed and published. More psilocybin research in Germany

Human Psychopharmacology of Psilocybin
Investigator: Rick Strassman, MD
University of New Mexico, USA

Psychobiological study. Phase 1 dose-response study
Sponsor: NIDA
Begun, not completed due to personal reasons unrelated to study itself.

Salvia Divinorum Research

contract Salvia Divinorum: In Progress
Human psychopharmacology of salvinorin A
Investigators: Matthew W Johnson Ph,D and Roland R. Griffiths Ph.D, Johns Hopkins University
Sponsor: National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Contact: .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address)
Examination of subjective, physiological, and persisting effects of vaporized salvinorin A, the active component in Salvia divinorum, in people using ascending doses across a wide dose range.

contract Salvia Divinorum: Completed
Studies of salvinorin and salvia divinorum use
Investigators: John E. Mendelson, Jeremy R. Coyle, Juan Carlos Lopez, Matthew J. Baggott, Keith Flower, E. Thomas Everhart, Thomas A. Munro, Gantt P. Galloway & Bruce M. Cohen
Sponsor: Beckley Foundation, anonymous donor
Contact: John E Mendelson
This study was a placebo-controlled, ascending dose examination of the effects of sublingually administered salvinorin A in eight individuals experienced with salvia divinorum. The study was double blind with respect to placebo and 100 μg doses, and single-blind for doses of 250, 500, 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 μg). Heart rate, blood pressure and oxygen saturation were monitored for up to 4 hours post-drug, and subjective effects were measured with multiple self-report scales. Results are presented in an in-press paper in Psychopharmacology.

Multi-Drug Studies

contract Multi-Drug Studies: Completed
Differential Effects of Hallucinogens, Entactogens, and Psychostimulants
Investigators: Euphrosyne Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, MD and Mark Geyer, PhD
Aachen, Germany and UC San Diego - La Jolla, California
Sponsor: Heffter
A study with healthy volunteers with two different hallucinogens and placebo in a double- blind, cross-over design. The aim of the study is to compare the effects of a classic tryptamine hallucinogen on psychosis-like psychopathology and measures of early information processing to the effects of an NMDA-antagonist. References and details

Receptor Mechanisms Contributing to Psychedelic Drug Effects
Investigators: Franz Vollenweider, MD and Mark Geyer, PhD
Sponsor: Heffter
Psychiatric University Hospital - Zrich, Switzerland and UC San Diego - La Jolla, California
Contact: ,

Cross Cultural and Meta-Analysis Research

contract Cross Cultural and Meta-Analysis: Completed
A Biochemical Bridge to the Embodied Psyche
(doctoral dissertation)
Investigator: Kim Hewitt
Department of American Civilization, University of Texas at Austin
Sponsors: MAPS
Exploration of how psychedelics helped facilitate a shift in American ideas about mind- body interaction. In 1999 the investigator traveled to the American Medical Archives in Chicago, and the Rockefeller Institute Archives in Tarrytown, New York to do research for this project, and presented part of her research on LSD at St. Lawrence University in Canton, New York for a series called "Visions the Plants Gave Us." Part of my dissertation will be published in an anthology called "The Politics of Healing," to be published in 2002. My essay addresses how psychedelic therapy changed individuals and the cultural mindset during the 1950's-60's.

Yes, Mom Took Acid: The Sociohistorical Influence of Prior Psychedelic Drug
(doctoral dissertation)
Investigator: Mariavittoria Mangini, M.S. PhD
Laytonville, California
Qualitative study, using focused interviews to obtain narrative data. Data also considered: published contemporary and historic discourses about psychedelic drug use, accounts of the interactions of psychedelic drug users with their social environment; and representations of the psychedelic experience in art, music, film and the electronic media.
Mangini was one of fifty scholars nationwide awarded the American Dissertation Fellowship by the American Association of University Women for the 1999-2000 academic year, a heartening acknowledgement of the relevance of this topic.

Northwest Amazonian Ayahuasca Shamanism and Near-Death Experience
Investigator: Marcus Lumby, PhD candidate
Sponsorship: includes small grant from MAPS
Anthropological investigation, first phase completed.

Guided, Structured, Group Use of Entheogenic Substances in Western Culture
(doctoral dissertation)
Investigator: Roger Marsden
California Institute of Integral Studies, Clinical Psychology
Sponsors: 1998 Kranzke Scholarship; MAPS
What are the different frameworks being employed by entheogenic guides? How are these frameworks different from those used in the research of the 1960s? How do the variations in present day frameworks appear to affect the outcome? Regardless of one's individual assumption of the value of psychedelic work, it is happening in a variety of contexts across the planet. The investigator has completed all interviews in 3 guided, structured entheogen/psychedelic groups. Data anaysis is complete (10 central themes extracted for the basis of discussion, i.e., preparation, integration, relationship of participants to guide, role of relationship of participants to each other, description of the actual sessions, relationship of the work to drug abuse issues, etc.)

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